Depending on the cause of infertility, surgical intervention may or may not be necessary.
In the evaluation of couples having difficulty conceiving, diagnostic tests to assess the eggs, the sperm, and the female reproductive tract (uterus and fallopian tubes) are typically performed.
Currently, only a few of the abnormalities which cause infertility require surgery. These include fibroids near the uterine cavity or dilated and occluded fallopian tubes (also known as hydrosalpinges).
If all the diagnostic tests are normal, surgery is not felt to be beneficial in most cases, and proceeding directly to non-surgical treatments to increase the chance of pregnancy (such as IUI or IVF) is typically recommended.